Journal AWWA - Effects of Blending on Total Copper Release in Distribution SystemsXiao, Weizhong; Hong, Seungkwan; Tang, Zhijian; Taylor, James S. Edition: Vol. 99 - No. 1
American Water Works Association / 01-Jan-2007 / 11 pages

The use of alternative source waters has becomecommon because of limited resources, increaseddemand, and regulatory constraints. However, thesepractices can create blending problems in distributionsystems and lead to release of corrosion products.This work attempted to correlate varying waterquality and associated confounding effects to copperrelease using data from a field study of pilot systemsdistributing finished waters produced from groundwater,surface water, and saline sources. Finishedgroundwater, surface water, and desalted seawaterwere characterized by high alkalinity, sulfates, andchlorides, respectively. Finished waters with highalkalinity and low pH (both of which are common inconventionally treated groundwaters) released moretotal copper than other waters.Because water source and treatment processes cansignificantly affect total copper release, water providersshould undertake preventive measures such as waterquality adjustment and/or corrosion inhibitor addition.The nonlinear regression copper release model presentedcan be used to develop more fundamental strategiesto mitigate copper corrosion and distributionwater quality deterioration. Includes 23 references, tables, figures.

Keywords: Copper; Groundwater; Water Quality; Corrosion; Blending; Surface Water; Alkalinity; Distribution Systems; Modeling

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